NINDS Reye's Syndrome Information Page: NINDS


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Article title: NINDS Reye's Syndrome Information Page: NINDS
Main condition: Reye's syndrome
Conditions: Reye's syndrome
What is Reye's Syndrome?
Reye's syndrome (RS) is primarily a children's disease, although it can occur at any age. It affects all organs of the body but is most harmful to the brain and the liver--causing an acute increase of pressure within the brain and, often, massive accumulations of fat in the liver and other organs. RS is defined as a two-phase illness because it generally occurs in conjunction with a previous viral infection, such as the flu or chicken pox. The disorder commonly occurs during recovery from a viral infection, although it can also develop 3 to 5 days after the onset of the viral illness. RS is often misdiagnosed as encephalitis, meningitis, diabetes, drug overdose, poisoning, sudden infant death syndrome, or psychiatric illness. Symptoms of RS include persistent or recurrent vomiting, listlessness, personality changes such as irritability or combativeness, disorientation or confusion, delirium, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. If these symptoms are present during or soon after a viral illness, medical attention should be sought immediately. The symptoms of RS in infants do not follow a typical pattern; for example, vomiting does not always occur. The cause of RS remains a mystery. However studies have shown that using aspirin or salicylate-containing medications to treat viral illnesses increases the risk of developing RS. A physician should be consulted before giving a child any aspirin or anti-nausea medicines during a viral illness, which can mask the symptoms of RS.

Is there any treatment?
There is no cure for RS. Successful management, which depends on early diagnosis, is primarily aimed at protecting the brain against irreversible damage by reducing brain swelling, reversing the metabolic injury, preventing complications in the lungs, and anticipating cardiac arrest. It has been learned that several inborn errors of metabolism mimic RS in that the first manifestation of these errors may be an encephalopathy with liver dysfunction. These disorders must be considered in all suspected cases of RS. Some evidence suggests that treatment in the end stages of RS with hypertonic IV glucose solutions may prevent progression of the syndrome.

What is the prognosis?
Recovery from RS is directly related to the severity of the swelling of the brain. Some people recover completely, while others may sustain varying degrees of brain damage. Those cases in which the disorder progresses rapidly and the patient lapses into a coma have a poorer prognosis than those with a less severe course. Statistics indicate that when RS is diagnosed and treated in its early stages, chances of recovery are excellent. When diagnosis and treatment are delayed, the chances for successful recovery and survival are severely reduced. Unless RS is diagnosed and treated successfully, death is common, often within a few days.

What research is being done?
Much of the research on RS focuses on answering fundamental questions about the disorder such as how problems in the body's metabolism may trigger the nervous system damage characteristic of RS and what role aspirin plays in this life-threatening disorder. The ultimate goal of this research is to improve scientific understanding, diagnosis and medical treatment of RS.

Selected references

Kilpatrick-Smith, L, Hale, D, and Douglas, S.
Progress in Reye Syndrome: Epidemiology, Biochemical Mechanisms and Animal Models. Digestive Diseases, 7:3; 135-146 (1989).

Pinsky, P, Hurwitz, E, and Schonberger, L.
Reye's Syndrome in Children: Low-Dose Aspirin Implicated. Modern Medicine, 57; 115 (February 1989).

Various.
Public Health Service Study of Reye's Syndrome and Medications. ournal of the American Medical Association, 257:14; 1905-1911a (April 10, 1987).

Trauner, D.
What is the Best Treatment for Reye's Syndrome? Archives of Neurology, 43:7; 729-731 (July 1986).

 Organizations

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
5600 Fishers Lane
CDER-HFD-210
Rockville, MD 20857
http://www.fda.gov/
Tel: 301-827-4573 888-INFO-FDA (463-6332)

National Reye's Syndrome Foundation
P.O. Box 829
426 North Lewis
Bryan, OH 43506-0829
nrsf@reyessyndrome.org
http://www.reyessyndrome.org/
Tel: 419-636-2679 800-233-7393
Fax: 419-636-3366

This fact sheet is in the public domain. You may copy it.Provided by:
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD 20892



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