Types of Dengue fever


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Types list: The list of types of Dengue fever mentioned in various sources includes:

Types discussion: Dengue fever can be caused by any one of four types of dengue virus: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. A person can be infected by at least two, if not all four types at different times during a life span, but only once by the same type. 1

Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by one of four closely related, but antigenically distinct, virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4), of the genus Flavivirus. Infection with one of these serotypes does not provide cross-protective immunity, so persons living in a dengue-endemic area can have four dengue infections during their lifetimes.2

In 1970, only DEN-2 virus was present in the Americas, although DEN-3 may have had a focal distribution in Colombia and Puerto Rico. In 1977, DEN-1 was introduced and caused major epidemics throughout the region over a 16-year period. DEN-4 was introduced in 1981 and caused similar widespread epidemics. Also in 1981, a new strain of DEN-2 from Southeast Asia caused the first major DHF epidemic in the Americas (Cuba). This strain has spread rapidly throughout the region and has caused outbreaks of DHF in Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Suriname, and Puerto Rico. By 1997, 18 countries in the American region had reported confirmed DHF cases (Figure 2), and DHF is now endemic in many of these countries. 2

DEN-3 virus recently reappeared in the Americas after an absence of 16 years. This serotype was first detected in association with a 1994 dengue/DHF epidemic in Nicaragua. Almost simultaneously, DEN-3 was confirmed in Panama and, in early 1995, in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua, considerable numbers of DHF cases were associated with the epidemic, which was apparently caused by DEN-3. In Panama and Costa Rica, the cases were classic dengue fever. 2

Footnotes:
1. excerpt from Dengue Fever: NIAID
2. excerpt from CDC Dengue Fever Home Page: DVBID

Last revision: May 27, 2003

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