Basic Summary for Malaria


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Main name of condition: Malaria
Other names or spellings: Ague, Jungle fever, Marsh fever, Malarial fever, Swamp fever, Paludism


What is Malaria?
  Brief description of Malaria: Mosquito-borne tropical disease common worldwide.
  Parent types of Malaria: Parasitic Conditions, Mosquito-borne diseases, Diseases contagious from blood, Diseases contagious from blood transfusion, Diseases contagious contagious mother-to-fetus
  Types of Malaria: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Transfusion malaria, Congenital malaria, Algid malaria, Cerebral malaria, Bilious remittent malaria, Falciparum malaria, Hemorrhagic malaria, Induced malaria, Ovale malaria, Quartan malaria, Quotidiam malaria, Tertian malaria, Vivax malaria
How many people get Malaria?
  Incidence (annual) of Malaria: 1,800 cases annually (1997); 1,666 annual cases notified in USA 1999 (MMWR 1999)
  Incidence Rate of Malaria: approx 1 in 151,111 or 0.00% or 1,800 people in USA [about data]
  Worldwide incidence of Malaria:300 to 500 million people develop malaria
  Prevalance of Malaria: In the United States, approximately 1,000 cases are reported annually, which researchers estimate represent only 25 to 50 percent of actual cases.1
Who gets Malaria?
  Geography Profile for Malaria: Countries in tropical Africa account for more than 90 percent of the cases and more than 6 percent occur in India, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Vietnam and Colombia.2
How serious is Malaria?
  Complications of Malaria: see complications of Malaria
What causes Malaria?
  Class of Condition for Malaria: parasite protozoa
  Causes of Malaria: see causes of Malaria
  Risk factors for Malaria: see risk factors for Malaria
What are the symptoms of Malaria?
  Incubation period for Malaria: 10-16 days; 1-4 weeks depending on type; longer for people unsuccessfully taking antimalarials.
  Incubation period for Malaria: Malaria symptoms can develop as soon as 6-8 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito, or as late as several months after departure from a malarious area (after antimalarial drugs are discontinued).3
  Symptoms of Malaria: see symptoms of Malaria
Can anyone else get Malaria?
  Contagion of Malaria: Spread by mosquito bites; rarely by other blood methods (transfusions, sharing needles); also mother-infant transplacental transmission
  More information: see contagiousness of Malaria
How is it treated?
  Treatments for Malaria: see treatments for Malaria
  Prevention of Malaria: see prevention of Malaria
  Research for Malaria: see research for Malaria
Society issues for Malaria
  Hospitalization statistics for Malaria: The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and Malaria:
  • 0.011% (1,432) of hospital consultant episodes were for plasmodium falciparum malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 86% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium falciparum malaria required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 61% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium falciparum malaria were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 39% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodiumfFalciparum malaria were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 94% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium falciparum malaria required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 3.9 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for plasmodium falciparum malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 3 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for plasmodium falciparum malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 33 was the mean age of patients hospitalised for plasmodium falciparum malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 81% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in 15-59 year olds in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 1% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium falciparum malaria were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.009% (4,475) of hospital bed days were for plasmodium falciparum malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.002% (275) of hospital consultant episodes were for plasmodium vivax malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 79% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium vivax malaria required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 61% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium vivax malaria were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 39% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium vivax malaria were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 97% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium vivax malaria required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 2.7 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for plasmodium vivax malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 2 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for plasmodium vivax malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 29 was the mean age of patients hospitalised for plasmodium vivax malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 75% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium vivax malaria occurred in 15-59 year olds in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 1% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium vivax malaria occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0% of hospital consultant episodes for plasmodium vivax malaria were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.001% (617) of hospital bed days were for plasmodium vivax malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.004% (441) of hospital consultant episodes were for unspecified malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 81% of hospital consultant episodes for required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 61% of hospital consultant episodes for unspecified malaria were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 39% of hospital consultant episodes for unspecified malaria were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 96% of hospital consultant episodes for required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 3 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for unspecified malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 2 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for unspecified malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 30 was the mean age of patients hospitalised for unspecified malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 77% of hospital consultant episodes for unspecified malaria occurred in 15-59 year olds in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0% of hospital consultant episodes for unspecified malaria occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 1% of hospital consultant episodes for unspecified malaria were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)
  • 0.002% (1,082) of hospital bed days were for unspecified malaria in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)


Footnotes:
1. excerpt from Microbes in Sickness and in Health - Publications, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: NIAID
2. excerpt from Malaria, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID
3. excerpt from Facts About Transfusion-Transmitted Malaria: CDC-OC

Last revision: June 2, 2003

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